Organizations and managers crave certainty. That's why the spreadsheet was invented. Put a lot of them in a three-ring binder, sprinkle in some pie charts, and everyone breathes a sigh of relief.

You cannot eliminate uncertainty. And, it’s impossible to create complete certainty. Some things remain uncertain, unmeasurable, unpredictable and, so, require faith as a tool of leadership.

We have no faith, so we live and work in a world of fear and mistrust. The degree of fear and mistrust are reflected formally by the intensity of an organization’s processes, systems, procedures and rules, and informally in the behavioral weaknesses of its leaders.

But, you say, fear and mistrust come along with the territory, the human jungle, the fight for survival. Yes, it's true. The human condition is a wretched state of affairs -- brutish, nasty and short. How's that working for you?

Leadership -- like all acts of creation, like all works of art -- is a rebellion. You must rebel against this wretched state of affairs.

Your job is to transcend what fear and mistrust do to an organization, how it pollutes people's problem solving passion and abilities. Remember this -- excessive and rigid processes, systems, rules and procedures are a tax you pay for being afraid and suspicious.

Lead, don't manage. Sprinkle in some faith instead.

AuthorJoseph Fusco
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Who is going to own this process?

It’s a question I’m sure is asked quite frequently, and more than likely in response to a thorny problem, the kind of problem many managers react to by kidnapping twelve people and calling it a meeting.

I think it’s the wrong question.

Do you really want someone to own the process?


The danger in creating ownership of a process is that it makes everyone — surprise — focus on the process. Success, and the value of everyone’s time and attention, is then measured by how good the process is. Or, by some perverse sense of how complicated and impenetrable the process is, or how many spreadsheet tabs it consumes, or how many work teams it sucked into its gravitational pull. You’ve created an organization where people get rewarded for process creation.

That's not good.

Words matter. Words create a culture in an organization. They reflect people’s thinking. They influence people’s behavior.

“Process” is the wrong word.

The right word — the right question — is “who is going to own the solution?”

Everyone’s focus needs to be on problem solving. Reward people for the quality of their solutions to an organization’s problems. Because we should come to work to solve problems, not design processes.

Maybe it’s nit-picky to focus on one simple word uttered by overwhelmed managers in the heat of a moment. I don’t think so. Like signposts, words direct people to what an organization values. Words create a culture.

And more than anything, you need a solution culture, not a process culture. After all, what do your customers want you to do for them — create a process, or solve a problem?

AuthorJoseph Fusco

Psst. Can I share a conspiracy theory with you?

Six terrible, shadowy forces roam this world, all of which have taken aim squarely at you with the purpose of making your life -- and your work -- a long, agonizing slog full of failure and misery.

They are, in no particular order: Stagnation, Irrelevance, Chaos, Fear, Isolation, and Boredom.

Assuming you want to be a happy and successful human being, you have no choice -- you must fight back. You must banish these forces from your life.

Your strongest weapon in this battle? Your problems. Yes, the decisions, puzzles, choices, relationships, obstacles, and challenges that your life and work throw at you every day. Embrace them and love them.

Look at it this way. Your problems are gifts:

  • Your problems are a gift in the defense against stagnation. Problems invite you to learn new skills, to grow, to adapt, to venture beyond your comfort zone, to pursue and shape your and others’ future.

  • Your problems are a gift in the battle against irrelevance. You matter. Your ideas, skills, knowledge and insights matter. This world, so full of problems, needs you. You have something important, valuable, and necessary to contribute. How dare you not think so.

  • Your problems are a gift in the fight against chaos. You really do have a measure of control over your life, over your results, over your direction. It’s your ability to be a great problem solver.

  • Your problems are a gift in the battle to defeat fear. Fear, uncertainty, doubt and instability thrive on our inability or unwillingness to address challenges in our lives and work. Embrace problems, and solve them well, and they lose their power to terrify you. Also, look around you. There’s a neverending shortage of great problem solvers in the world. Be one -- it’s terrific job security.

  • Your problems are a gift in the struggle to overcome isolation. Reach out. Ask for help. Connect with other people, and other ideas, insights, and experiences. You are never alone.

  • Your problems are a gift in the battle to vanquish boredom. Your problems challenge you to let your brain out of its cage. Experiment and play. Have fun. Invent something. Be inspired.

Great leaders (and happy and successful people) love problems. They expect them daily, and embrace each and every one of them. They understand the path to mastery in life is a deep passion and commitment to address and solve those challenges and problems.

Life, and work, is a problem-solving journey. Enjoy the ride, and fight the good fight.

(Note: this article is based on a previously written post, which I updated, and rewrote here. I like to think I get smarter as time passes, and gain new insight)

AuthorJoseph Fusco

You dream, you say, of being a rotten leader? Congratulations! Today is your lucky day.

There are people all around you who want to build great businesses, make money, or change the world. They need you to make it easy to steal your customers and your brightest and most passionate employees. You’ll be doing a lot of people a big favor!

And who wants to go home every night miserable and exhausted? You, that’s who! Being a rotten leader is the first step.

So, we’re here to help. What you are about to read is full of advice on how to give feedback like a rotten leader. It’s good advice. We’ve tried some of it, and we’ve watched others try it, too. Believe us, it works.

This advice is not difficult to put into practice. Giving feedback like a rotten leader is one of the easiest things to do. In fact, we’re proud to say these principles are being put into action all over the world today -- even right now, as you read this. Rotten leaders are everywhere -- learn from the worst!

Enough yakking! Let’s get to it -- The Rotten Leader’s Guide to Giving Feedback.

Don’t Even Bother!

This is the single most important tip we can give a rotten leader. Your direct reports should already know what they’re supposed to be doing, and whether they’re doing it well, or poorly. And, if they don’t, it’s best to keep them guessing -- uncertainty makes for sharper and more engaged employees, right? Besides, you’ve got better things to do with your time than give feedback -- that office football pool isn’t going to fill itself out, you know!

See? Easy! We could (and should) stop right here and you’d already be a world-class rotten leader. But if you must, or feel the slightest or rarest impulse to give people feedback, here’s how to be the mostest rottenest feedback giver ever.

Believe the Worst!

Rotten feedback doesn’t just happen. You’ve got to be prepared! Save yourself a lot of time and inconvenience by making some simple assumptions about the people who work for you:

  • they’re incompetent

  • they’re out to get you

  • they can’t be trusted

  • they spend most of the day thinking up ways to make mistakes or otherwise annoy the living daylights out of you

  • they’re basically idiots

  • their goal in life is to disappoint you

“Oh, my,” we hear you thinking, “this explains everything!” Yes, yes it does, and once you embrace these blissful assumptions, you’re ready to hit the ground running.

Threats Work Best!

Did someone make a mistake? Of course they did! Threaten them with grotesque and disruptive consequences, or threaten them with subtle, sweetly whispered suggestions about their future employability. We don’t care which -- just threaten them! Scared, distracted people work harder and faster. We read it on the Internet, so it must be true.

Raising Your Voice Works Even Better!

Everyone knows the most powerful motivation in the world to grow and improve one’s performance is an angry, red-faced boss who could explode at any moment. Let them know how boiling mad you are, and so easily can become, and they’ll never, ever make another mistake.

Be Vague!

If you’re either happy or unhappy with their performance, don’t be too specific as to why. They can figure it out on their own. That’s what you pay them for. Also, be as vague as possible about your expectations, desired results, or areas for improvement. This is a great strategy for saving time in the future, as the people who work for you really should be able to read your mind, shouldn’t they? Hints, ambiguities, and even mumbles are an important part of their training. Get them started today!


Go ahead -- check your email, or take a phone call while giving someone feedback. It’s OK to make them wait. After all, you’re a busy, important person, and your direct reports should be grateful for the opportunity to be mentored by you.

Make It About You!

Having to give feedback has handed you a golden opportunity! Take the credit you deserve! If by some accident, someone who works for you did a good job, make sure they (and everyone else around) understand that it’s almost entirely due to your support, your vision, and your superior intelligence. They probably already know that, but it can’t hurt to remind them.

Feedback. Unless horribly misused by rotten leaders, it creates happy, independent employees who are great at solving problems, making money and changing the world.

You’ve been warned.

AuthorJoseph Fusco

(Originally published under the title "The Three Foundations for Providing Feedback to Employees" on "Brainwaves," the blog of the University of Vermont's Continuing and Distance Education Department)

Sometimes, we just call it feedback -- a performance review, a disciplinary action, a pat on the back -- and simply leave it at that. But it’s much, much more.

Feedback is information, but it’s also wisdom. Feedback is nourishment. It feeds people’s and organizations’ need to grow, adapt, and thrive. It creates the capacity to repair, renew, and evolve. And, it is what the best leaders are great at. In a great organization, feedback happens all the time, in all directions, and is welcomed and embraced.

After all, feedback is central to the love affair with the truth that great leaders know is vital to all organizations -- the truth of who we are, the truth of our impact on others, the truth of our markets and our customers, and the truth of what we do well and what we don’t do well.

Yes, feedback is sometimes simply a performance review, or a pat on the back. Whatever form it takes (and it takes many) there are a number of very specific beliefs and behaviors that are foundational to great feedback. Here are three that we see in the very best leaders, and in the very best feedback:

It always builds, and never tears down.

Great feedback never raises its voice in anger, never belittles, and never humiliates, no matter the nature and the size of the mistake. It does not roll its eyes, sneer or snort in disgust.

It speaks the truth in love. It understands that people are imperfect, and have imperfect days. It believes in people’s ability and desire to rise above those imperfections and do good, meaningful work. It accepts the principle that no one wakes up in the morning eager to fail. Great feedback cares about people and wants them to learn, grow, and succeed. That’s why feedback exists, and it delivers that message in the spirit and the voice in which it is given.

It always challenges, but never threatens.

Great feedback never seeks to strike fear into people’s hearts. It doesn’t criminalize mistakes, or summarily execute employees for making them. It doesn’t feed on ultimatums. It doesn’t threaten with grotesque and disruptive consequences, or with subtle and sweetly whispered suggestions about job security.

It pushes people to grow. It understands people don’t work well when they’re scared and distracted. It encourages people to learn, and to strive to not make the same mistake twice. It challenges people to leave their comfort zones, and to reach higher and try harder. Great feedback is clear about expectations, and embraces accountability.

It always gives, and never steals.

Great feedback never robs people of their dignity. It never deprives them of a chance to make it right. It doesn’t steal their voice. It doesn’t disturb the peace or steal stability.

It is a gift. It is the gift of the space and permission to learn, or to correct a course of action. It gives clarity, encouragement, insight, meaning and truth. It gives hope. It casts credit and success far and wide. It shares information and learning. It connects people and builds relationships. It gives time - to conversations and relationship building, and to the hard work and investment that makes great feedback so valuable.

There is a simple, practical way to build great feedback skills. Whenever you have the opportunity to give feedback, ask yourself three questions:

  1. Is what I’m about to say (and how I’m going to say it) going to build the person in front of me, or tear them down?

  2. Is what I’m about to say (and how I’m going to say it) going to challenge the person in front of me, or threaten them?

  3. Is what I’m about to say (and how I’m going to say it) going to be a gift to the person in front of me, or will it steal from them?

These are tough questions, tougher than they look on the surface. It is easy to delude ourselves with answers that justify our motives, rather than serve as a genuine reflection of the truth of what comes out of our mouths.

In any case, feedback is difficult to excel at, but delivers an exceptional return on investment. To do it well consistently demands a life- and career-long commitment, regardless of whether your goal is to make money or to change the world. Understanding its foundations is the first step.


AuthorJoseph Fusco